During the Design Phase of ADDIE, the instructional designer should consider the pedagogical approach that will suit their training best. I prefer a Constructivist approach for teaching and learning. The framework that Larson encourages, therefore, is the Biological Sciences Curriculum Study’s (BSCS) 5E Framework. However, since this framework is mostly geared toward science, the more suitable, and very similar choice for my training is Gagne’s Nine Events of Instruction. Larson (2014) explains, “Ultimately, you should select strategies that complement or foster the behavior or learning described in your learning outcomes” (p. 152). It is imperative to consider what you want learners to be able to do and who they are as an audience before deciding upon an instructional framework. Gagne’s model has nine meaningful stages: gaining audience attention with a hook, sharing the objectives with the learners, stimulating prior knowledge, presenting the instruction dynamically, providing guidance to those who need it, having learners perform a task, assessing that performance, and enhancing learner retention by having them apply their knowledge. Larson (2014) is in favor of supporting learning by doing, and so am I.
A balance of instructional design and project management best practices leads to a successful Implementation Phase of ADDIE. For this reason, there are three tasks that occur during the Implementation Phase of ADDIE that are more important than the others. It is crucial that the designer identifies project management requirements, such as the organization of tasks, deliverables, a schedule, and communication procedures (Larson, 2014). Harris (2013) supports the importance of this task when he explains his technique, “SPADES stands for start, plan, administer, develop, engage, and stop. Each of these stages incorporates tasks typically completed with ADDIE, but adds project management techniques to ensure everyone’s needs are met” (p. 60). The designer does not want to waste time, money, or energy, and this task will help them avoid failure. Another significant task involves establishing standards for accessibility, safety and privacy, and quality (Larson, 2014). The instructional materials should be available to all learners, and should follow Universal Design for Learning (UDL). This means the materials should have multiple means of representation, action and expression, and cognitive engagement (Larson, 2014). Finally, there needs to be a solid evaluation and revision plan in place. The designer must follow up on the summative assessments and stakeholder reflections to ensure that improvements will be made.
In the past, I always implemented instruction without thinking making many of these considerations of design or implementation. Now I know that having my learners begin by taking an actual Google Forms survey will spark their interest. I have always thought it is important to share the learning objectives before instruction. Whenever I have been in meetings with no agenda or objectives, I have become quite frustrated; I would like to avoid that with my learners. Also, the final piece of this framework gets to the higher order thinking skills on Bloom’s Taxonomy in which learners do something with the new knowledge and have a better chance of committing it to memory. For these reasons, I favor a constructive approach.
Learners in the training I am developing for this class will actually be taking, creating, and sharing Google Forms surveys, which makes them active participants in their learning. Since teachers have their own school-issued laptops, they will be able to move quickly from the lower to upper levels of Bloom’s Taxonomy and make use of Google Forms right away. As the designer of this Google Forms training, I will have to carry out the implementation tasks with fidelity. I will be reviewing my project management documents from EDU627 and creating a project management plan and communication procedures. I will also design my training by incorporating principles of UDL. I will have to find some articles to refresh my memory on UDL. Lastly, I will elect an evaluator to sit down with me to review my data from the training to ensure that I carried out that task and made the appropriate changes.
What is the most important step of implementation in your point of view?
Harris, A. (2013). Training in sp♠des. T+D, 67(6), 58-62. Retrieved from http://eds.a.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=b38a9d20-6088-419f-ad98-b912228910c9%40sessionmgr4002&vid=1&hid=4113.
Larson, M. (2014). Streamlined ID: A practical guide to instructional design. New York: Routledge.
This website gives more in depth information about SPADES, the project management version of ADDIE: