Completing the Analysis Phase of the ADDIE Model means being able to carry out the rest of the steps successfully. Larson (2014) asserts, “A learner-centered design is said to be the most powerful contribution to effective instruction resulting from a systematic approach” (p. 41). During this phase, it is crucial to write the instructional goals, which clearly define the goals of the training, to conduct the instructional analysis, in which you write out the steps and sub-steps necessary to carry out the goals, to conduct a learner analysis, in which you determine what your learners already know so you know how much you need to teach them, and to write learning objectives, which state what leaners should be able to do by the end of the training (Gardner, 2011, n.p.). Key to this phase is knowing who your learners are because learner profiles can impact everything about training, but most importantly media selection, their attention to your training, the time and pacing of the training, and the strategies you will choose as a designer (Larson, 2014, p. 44). Every learner brings a different level of intelligence, prior knowledge, and motivation to a learning environment (Larson, 2014, p. 52-3). In addition, understanding contexts of instruction are just as important as conducting the learner analysis (Larson, 2014, p. 60). The designer needs to know where the trainees will use the skills learned, where they will learn the skills, how the community sees the training, and how the training is set up theoretically. Organizational culture can also have a huge impact on training (Larson, 2014, p. 75).
The Design Phase of the ADDIE Model is all about figuring out what will be assessed as a result of the instruction, choosing a format for the instruction, and choosing the instructional strategies that will deliver the training the best. Larson (2014) explains that as an instructional designer, “Your job in this process is to closely examine the content, identify what’s essential, organize it, and present it in a way that facilitates its review” (p. 92). It is during this phase that a designer limits the scope of instruction to the essentials (Larson, 2014, p. 93). It is also important to consider the visual design of instruction, including the text and images that will be used.
How Analysis & Design Impact Instruction
Having to go through the phases of ADDIE in this course has already made me a better instructional designer and educator. The final project that I am developing for the class is a training that will be delivered to fellow educators. During the analysis and design phases, I concluded that the people receiving this training are mostly under the age of forty and highly technology savvy. Almost all of the learners have a Master’s degree and have experienced using technology in the classroom. I also noted that the group does not enjoy lecture style learning, so I decided that the training would include a lot of learner participation, with the trainer serving as the facilitator. Since I know time is precious to these learners, and many have commitments after school, the training will be focused and purposeful. There is one teacher who is highly resistant to technology, and other teachers who already use Google Forms. Thus, I noted that the training would need to be engaging to a range of learners. This audience will flat out ignore anything they do not feel is immediately useful, so the training will be designed to communicate Google Forms’ utility right away. While leading out on past professional development trainings, I had not used the ADDIE Model, and therefore did not complete the analysis or design phases. As a result, I ended up frustrated that it did not go as planned and my peers were frustrated with the training because it was not geared to them as learners. Overall, I am finding ADDIE useful, but cannot see how I would find the time to use it in its entirety during the school year.
Gardner, J. [jclarkgardner]. (2011). The ADDIE analysis phase [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JZdv5lrJs4U.
Larson, M. (2014). Streamlined ID : A practical guide to instructional design. New York: Routledge.
This video will help you do an instructional analysis on complex content: